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宗薩欽哲仁波切新的開示:「我們帶入學佛的扭曲」

宗薩欽哲仁波切:「我們帶入學佛的扭曲」

The Distortions We Bring To The Study of Buddhism, 

Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche, Shambhala Sun, September 1997.
http://integral-options.blogspot.com/2009/04/dzongsar-khyentse-rinpoche-distortions.html《香巴拉大日》,1997年9月


Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche takes a good look at the biases we hold in how we approach Buddhism in "The Distortions We Bring To The Study of Buddhism," from Shambhala Sun. This is from 1997, but it's still very relevant.

在刊於《香巴拉大日》(Shambhala Sun)佛教期刊的「我們帶入學佛的扭曲」一文中,宗薩欽哲仁波切仔細檢視了我們趨近佛教時所執持的偏見。雖然此文撰於1997年,但依然非常切合當前實需。


Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse calls on Westerners to acknowledge the distortions we may bring to the study of Buddhism—through our cultural arrogance, the deceit of ego, and simple ignorance. The successful transplant of such a subtle and challenging practice as Buddhism, he says, depends on thorough study and clear recognition of our habitual patterns.
宗薩蔣揚欽哲仁波切呼籲西方人體認我們可能帶入學佛過程中的扭曲——出於我們文化上的自大、自我的欺瞞,以及單單無明本身。仁波切說,要成功移植像是佛教這樣精細和具有挑戰性的修行,實有賴於全面徹底的研習以及清楚認知我們的習性。

Transplanting anything from a foreign culture is a difficult process which may corrupt what is being imported. Buddhism is certainly no exception; in fact, among imported foreign goods, dharma is perhaps the most prone to corruption.

從異國文化移植任何東西都是一個困難的過程,這過程可能使得引進之物遭到汙染腐化。佛教自然也不例外。事實上,在所有外來引進物當中,最容易受到敗壞的可能就是佛法。


Initially, to understand dharma even on an intellectual level is not at all simple. Then once we have some understanding, to put dharma into practice is even more subtle, because it requires that we go beyond our habitual patterns. Intellectually, we may recognize how our narrow-minded habits have brought about our own cycle of suffering, but at the same time we may also be afraid to engage wholeheartedly in the process of liberating these habits of ours.

在開始的時候,要瞭解佛法,即使是在智識的層面,就已不是件容易的事。其後一旦我們有些許瞭解時,要實修佛法則更是微妙、難以捉摸,因爲這需要我們超越自己的習性。智識上,我們可以認知到自己狹隘心的習慣是如何爲自己帶來受苦的輪轉,然而同時我們對於要全心全意投入於解放這些習慣的過程也可能感到害怕。


This is cherishing of ego. For even if we think we want to practice the Buddhist path, to give up our ego-clinging is not easy, and we could well end up with our own ego's version of dharma—a pseudo-dharma which will only bring more suffering instead of liberation.

這就是珍惜自我。因爲即便我們想著要修行佛道,放棄自我卻不容易,而且我們可能正巧落入自我所產生的佛法版本中——一個假冒僞裝的佛法,那只會帶來更多的痛苦而非解脫。


For this reason, most Oriental teachers are very skeptical about exporting dharma to the Western world, feeling that Westerners lack the refinement and courage to understand and practice properly the buddhadharma. On the other hand there are some who try their best to work on the transmission of the dharma to the West.

因此,大部份的東方上師對於將佛法輸出到西方世界都抱持非常懷疑的態度,感覺西方人缺乏能適切理解佛法和修持佛法所需的精細性和勇氣。另一方面,也有些上師盡己所能地傳授佛法至西方。


It is important to remember that a thorough transplantation of dharma cannot be accomplished within a single generation. It is not an easy process, and as when Buddhism was brought from India to Tibet , it will undoubtedly take time. There are enormous differences between the attitudes of various cultures and different interpretations of similar phenomena. It is easy to forget that such supposedly universal notions as "ego," "freedom," "equality," "power," and the implications of "gender" and "secrecy," are all constructions that are culture-specific and differ radically when seen through different perspectives. The innuendoes surrounding a certain issue in one culture might not even occur to those of another culture, where the practice in question is taken for granted.

重要的是要記得,我們無法在一個世代內完成佛法的全面性移植。這個過程並不簡單,如同佛教從印度引至西藏時一樣,無疑地需要時間。不同文化在心態上會有巨大的不同處,對於類似現象也會有極爲不同的解讀。一些被視為普遍的觀念:例如「自我」、「自由」、「平等」、「力量」,以及「性別」、「秘密」的衍生意涵,我們很容易就會忘記它們全都是特定文化下的建構,用不同觀點來看時,其實是截然相異的。在一個文化中,圍繞特定議題所影涉之事,在另一個把修行視爲理所當然的文化中,可能甚至是不存在的。


In recent years there have been numerous critiques of both the Buddhist teachings and certain Buddhist teachers. Unfortunately, these often reveal a serious degree of ignorance about the subject-matter. Many Tibetan lamas adopt the attitude that "it doesn't matter," because they genuinely don't mind such attacks. I think the perspective of many lamas is vaster than trying to keep track of the latest likes and dislikes of the fickle modern mind. Other Tibetan lamas adopt the attitude that Westerners are merely spiritual window-shopping, telling the younger lamas like myself, "See, we told you! They are not here for the dharma. For them, we are a mere curiosity." In an attempt to adopt a good motivation, I would like to propose some alternative perspectives.

近年來有許多批評,針對佛教教法與特定佛教教師的都有。不幸的是,這些批評通常顯露出對於所議主題具有嚴重程度的無知。許多西藏喇嘛採取一種「無所謂」的態度,因爲他們對於這些攻擊是真的不在意。我想,相較於試著追踪現代人心中反覆易變的最新喜惡,很多喇嘛的眼界都比這來得更爲廣闊。另一些西藏喇嘛採取的態度是:西方人不過是靈修的橱窗購物者(譯注:光看不買者);他們會跟像我這樣較年輕的喇嘛們説:「看吧,我們跟你說過的!他們在這堣ㄛO爲了佛法。對他們來說,我們不過是好奇的對象。」出於善意發心的嘗試,我想要提議一些另類的觀點。


Certain critiques of Buddhism actually enhance my devotion to the teachings and to my teachers, because I feel the dharma defies any such criticisms. But I also feel that some of these writings can be harmful in their effect. There may be many beings whose connection to the dharma is just about to ripen, and these writings can jeopardize their opportunity. In our life we encounter a multitude of obstacles and difficult circumstances. But the worst possible obstacle is to be prevented from engaging in an authentic path to enlightenment.

某些對於佛教的批評其實增强了我對教法以及上師們的虔敬,因爲我覺得佛法使這所有的批判都落空。但是我也感到這些評述中,有的可能會造成損害。或許有許多人與佛法的業緣正要成熟,而這些論述卻可能危害到他們的機會。在生命中我們會遇到許多障礙和困境,但是最糟的一種障礙就是遭到妨礙以致於無法步上通往證悟的真實之道。


In this age, when people naively jump to conclusions based on the writings of those who try to warn about the hazards of guru-disciple relationships, such critiques may result in the tragic destruction for many people of their only chance of liberation from the ocean of suffering. In the sutras, it is stated that someone who rejoices even momentarily over something that leads to such a lost opportunity will not encounter the path of enlightenment for hundreds of lifetimes.

在這個時代,或有人試圖就師徒關係的危險性提出警告,而當人們天真的根據那些人所寫的批判遽下結論時,這些批評可能會導至悲劇性的破壞,而毀了許多人從苦海中獲得解脫的唯一機會。佛經中提到,對於造成如此喪失機會的事情,若有人即便是片刻的隨喜,也會有數百輩子不得值遇證悟道。


Generally, I think that when we want to expose a fault or present an opinion, two attributes are necessary: one should know the subject thoroughly, and one should not oneself have the faults that one is criticizing. Otherwise, one will be, as the Tibetan proverb describes, "a monkey who laughs at another monkey's tail." Let us not forget that as human beings we are victims of our own narrow-minded interpretations. We should not give so much authority to our limited points of view: our interpretations and subjective perspectives are limitless and almost always stem from our own fears, expectations and ignorance.

一般而言,我認為當我們想要揭露某一過失或是表述意見時,必須有兩種特質:應當充分瞭解此議題,以及自身不應具有你所批評的過錯。否則,就如同西藏諺語所述:「一隻猴子笑另一隻猴子的尾巴」。我們不要忘記,身為人類的我們,是自己狹隘心思解讀的受害者。我們不應為自己有限的觀點賦予過多的權威:我們具有無窮無盡的解讀和主觀見解,而這些幾乎都來自我們自己的恐懼、期望和無明。


It would be of great amusement to many learned Tibetan scholars if they could read some of the presentations written by Westerners on such subjects as Buddhism or gurus. It is like imagining an old Tibetan lama reading Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet or listening to a beautiful aria. He would most probably think the former uninteresting and that the latter sounded like a cat being skinned alive!

對於許多西藏的博學之士而言,要是他們能讀到一些西方人士關於佛教或上師的著述,會是極大的娛樂。就有如想像西藏老喇嘛讀莎士比亞的《羅密歐與茱麗葉》或是聆聽一曲優美的詠嘆調,他很有可能會覺得前者不太有趣,而後者聽起來像是隻貓正遭人活活剝皮!


It is better not to distort things with our limited interpretations at all, but if we have to, then at least we should be more aware of how powerful and one-sided our interpretations can be. For example, I could claim all kinds of things about the way that Westerners approach the study of Eastern cultures. I could easily put forward an interpretation, one that might seem entirely valid, that claims Western conceptual frameworks stem from a basic attitude of arrogance in the way that they construct themselves and others.

最好是完全不要用我們有限的解讀來扭曲事情,但若我們必須這麼做,那至少應更清楚地覺知自己的解讀是多麽富有力量,以及是多麼的片面。例如,我可以就西方對東方文化的學習方式做各式各樣的宣稱。我可以很容易地做出一個解讀,主張説西方的抽象概念架構來自他們建構人我關係的一種傲慢的基本心態,而這可能看起來是完全站得住脚的。


In almost all departments in Western universities that allegedly teach Buddhism, the teachers usually have to hide the fact if they happen to be Buddhists themselves. Do the mathematics teachers hide the fact that they believe in the logic of mathematics? Western scholars need to be more questioning about their own rigid biases that prevent them from being able to appreciate other perspectives. I find heartbreaking the imperialist attitude that arrogantly isolates one aspect of Eastern culture, analyzing it at a careful distance, manipulating and sterilizing it to fit Western agendas, and then perhaps concluding that it is now suitable for consumption.

在幾乎所有宣稱他們教導佛教的西方大學科系堙A教師們通常都必須隱藏若他們恰巧是佛教徒的事實。數學老師會需要隱藏他們相信數學邏輯的事實嗎?西方學者需要對自己僵固的偏見——那些使得他們難以欣賞其他觀點的偏見,做出更多的質疑。帝國主義心態傲慢地孤立東方文化的某個層面,在小心翼翼的距離外進行分析、操弄和消毒,使它符合西方的目的,或許再下結論説現在大可來消費之,這讓我感到痛心。


Another example of the hypocrisy involved with this kind of attitude is the Western "benevolent" wish to "liberate" Eastern women from the clutches of what is imagined to be the oppressive tyranny of a misogynist system, resembling the Western missionaries wanting natives to adopt Christian morals and values. In the West, amongst other things, women are photographed naked and the pictures are published in magazines. Many other cultures would regard this as exceedingly embarrassing, as well as extremely exploitative and oppressive of women. So from their point of view, Western criticism of another culture for its subjugation of women is a highly contentious matter.

另一個僞善的例子是關於這種西方的「慈善性」願望,想要從魔掌中「解救」出東方女性,他們想像東方女性陷於一種憎惡女性體系的壓迫暴政中,這就像是西方傳教士想要原住民採納基督教倫理道德與價值觀。在西方,女性被拍裸照,照片還刊登在雜誌上,等等的這些事情,許多其他的文化會認爲這使人極端困窘,而且是對女性的極度剝削和暴虐。所以從他們的觀點來說,西方人批評另一個文化壓迫女性,是極具爭議性的事。


Surely no culture should claim to have the deep appreciation and understanding necessary to produce a thorough and justified critique of an important aspect of another's culture (especially when the topic is as sophisticated and complex as Buddhism) without having the humility to make the effort to accurately and deeply learn about that topic on that culture's own terms.

在尚未謙遜地努力用另一文化的本身詞語來做精確和深入學習時,當然沒有任何文化應當宣稱自己具有足够深厚的瞭解來對另一文化的重要面向做出完整詳盡和有道理的批評,特別是當主題非常精細複雜,像是佛教時。


Sometimes it might help Westerners to develop more respect and appreciation for the East if they remember that 3,000 years ago, when the East was flourishing with philosophy, arts, languages and medicine, the Western natives still didn't have the idea to brush their own teeth! And in many cultures' perspectives, so-called Western science and technology has not really done much besides destroying the world's resources. Ideas such as democracy and capitalism, as well as equality and human rights, can be seen to have failed miserably in the West, and to be nothing but new dogmas.

有時或許這能幫助西方人更尊敬和欣賞東方,要是西方人能記得在三千年前,當東方的哲學、藝術、語言、醫藥蓬勃發展時,西方的原住民仍不知道有刷牙這件事!且就很多文化的觀點而言,西方所謂的科技除了摧殘世界資源外,其實沒什麼別的建樹。像是民主和資本主義等思想,以及平等和人權等,可以見到在西方已經慘敗,除了成爲新的教條以外,什麼都不是。


I find it difficult to see the advantage of incorporating these limited Western value systems into an approach to the dharma. These certainly do not constitute the extraordinary realization Prince Siddhartha attained under the Bodhi tree 2,500 years ago. The West can analyze and criticize Tibetan culture, but I would be so thankful if they could have the humility and respect to leave the teachings of Siddhartha alone, or at least to study and practice them thoroughly before they set themselves up as authorities.

我很難看出將這些有限的西方價值體系融入學習佛法中有何利益。這些無疑地並不會構成悉達多太子兩千五百年前在菩提樹下的超凡開悟。西方可以分析和批評西藏文化,但若他們能謙恭、尊敬地放過悉達多的教法,或至少在徹底學習和修持過之前,不要自許爲權威,我會非常感激。

If people could put some effort into being respectful and open-minded, there is so much knowledge available that could liberate them from all kinds of suffering and confusion. It is only now that I have come to realize the significance of the great respect that the Tibetan translators and scholars of the past had toward India , their source of dharma and wisdom. Instead of being critical or even resentful of their source, they called it "The Sublime Land of India." This kind of attitude is very different from the Western shopping mentality that regards the dharma as merchandise and our own involvement as an investment—only wanting to accept what sits well with our habitual expectations and rejecting what we don't find immediately gratifying.

若是人們能稍微嘗試有點敬意和心胸開放,有這麼多的知識可以將他們自各種痛苦和迷妄中解脫出來。一直到現在我才領悟到,過去西藏譯師、學者們對於印度——他們佛法和智慧的根源——的巨大尊敬是多麼重要。他們對此來源沒有挑剔批評,更沒有憎惡,而是稱其爲「聖地印度」。這種態度和西方的購物心態非常不同,西方看待佛法就像商品,而我們自己的投入就像是投資——只想要接受和自己慣性期許相合的部份,而排斥不能立即讓我們感到滿足的部份。


This is not to say that Westerners should not be critical of the Buddhist teachings. On the contrary, as the Lord Buddha himself said, "Without melting, beating, weighing and polishing a yellow substance, one should not take it for gold. Likewise, without analysis one should not accept the dharma as valid." Logical analysis has always been encouraged in the Buddhist tradition, and Buddhism has always challenged the promotion of blind faith.

這不是説西方人不應該對佛教教法有批判性。相反的,如同怙主佛陀自己所言:「黃色物質若不經過熔冶、錘煉、稱重、打磨,就不應將它當成金子。同樣的,若不經過分析,就不應接受佛法的正確性。」邏輯分析在佛教傳統中一直是被鼓勵的,並且佛教總是駁斥對於盲信的推廣。


The difference lies in the attitude you take towards the criticism. In the process of analyzing that "yellow substance," the analyzer must not only maintain an open mind, but also acknowledge that he/she may not have an adequate knowledge of the subject matter. That is the whole point of analysis. Otherwise we are just seeking confirmation of what we already believe. Being skeptical and seeking faults are two completely different things.

這其中的不同,在於進行批評的心態。在分析「黃色物質」的過程中,分析者不僅必須維持開放的心,也必須認知到自己對於所檢視的主題可能不具備充份的知識,那就是爲何要做分析的重點所在。否則,我們只是在對自己已確信的觀點尋求確認。保持懷疑和挑毛病完全是兩碼子事。


Nowhere is the difference between these two attitudes more obvious and more important than when it comes to criticisms of the guru in vajrayana Buddhism. Unfortunately, the guru is a must for vajrayana practice. However, all great masters and teachings repeatedly advise that one should always be skillful in checking the lama before one takes him as one's master. We have that option, and we should take advantage of it. It is vital to study the teachings extensively in order to be prepared to take on a teacher. In fact, some of the vajrayana scriptures mention that one should check a potential teacher for twelve years before becoming his student.

這兩種心態的差異,在批評金剛乘佛教的上師時最爲明顯不過,也最爲重要。不幸地,要修金剛乘,上師是不可或缺的。然而,所有偉大上師和教導都不斷重複告誡弟子在選上師之前,永遠必須要善巧地檢視這位喇嘛。我們擁有那個選擇權,也應當好好利用它。要爲拜師做好準備,充分研習教法至關緊要。事實上,有些金剛乘典籍中提及,弟子在擇師之前,應該用十二年的時間來檢視這位潛在的教師。


However, I think it is also important to remember that Buddhism is not only vajrayana. There are other paths such as Theravada, which is the foundation of all Buddhist paths. This is a straightforward path, which does not spark off all kinds of mystical expectations. What sometimes seems to happen is that people want to practice vajrayana because they see it as something exotic, when in fact they would be better off with the sanity and simplicity of the Theravada.

然而我認為,記得佛法不僅只有金剛乘,這也是重要的。還有其它道途如上座部,這是一切佛教道途的基礎,一條直接了當的道路,不會激發出各種神秘的期待。有時看來人們想修金剛乘是因爲,他們將金剛乘視作某種充滿異國情調的東西,而其實上座部的清醒和單純反而對他們比較好。


In vajrayana, in order to enable the guru to help us and work on our dualistic ego-centered preoccupations, we are supposed to think that the guru is no different in wisdom than the Buddha. This is the highest form of mind training. We are literally making a hero out of someone who, because he sees our potential, has no qualms about challenging and even abusing our narrow-minded and habitual patterns. This is a very radical, difficult and revolutionary method. From a conventional point of view, or from the point of view of ego-cherishing, the whole notion of the guru-disciple relationship is something almost criminal. Yet the point to remember is that the only purpose of the existence of the guru is to function as a skillful means to combat habits of dualistic conceptualizations, and to combat the tricks and tenacity of ego-clinging. In this way the guru is a living manifestation of the teachings.

在金剛乘中,爲了讓上師能幫助我們對付我們二元對立、以自我爲中心的成見,我們應當認爲上師在智慧上和佛陀沒有分別,這是最崇高的修心方式。我們簡直就是塑造出一位英雄,因爲他看見我們的潛能,所以對於挑戰或甚至是虐待我們狹隘心性和習性都不會感到良心不安。這是個非常激進、困難和革命性的法門。從傳統觀點來看、或是以珍愛自我的觀點而言,師徒關係的整個概念幾乎是一種犯罪。然而要記得的重點是,上師存在的唯一理由就是做爲與二元概念化習慣搏鬥的善巧方便,打擊執持自我的詭計和韌性。在這種方式中,上師即是教法活生生的顯現。


It needs to be emphasized that it is our perception of the guru which enables the guru to function as a manifestation of the dharma. At first we see the guru as an ordinary person, and then as our practice develops we start to see the guru as more of an enlightened being, until finally we learn to recognize the guru as being nothing but an external manifestation of our own awakeness or buddhamind. In a subtle way then, it is almost irrelevant whether or not the teacher is enlightened. The guru-disciple relationship is not about worshipping a guru, but providing the opportunity to liberate our confused perceptions of reality.

需要強調的是,是我們的對於上師的感知使得上師成爲佛法的顯現。一開始我們視上師爲普通人,然後隨著我們修行的開展,我們開始視上師更像是開悟者,直到最終我們習得認知上師無非是我們自己覺性或佛心的外顯。於是,以精細的層面而言,上師是否開悟幾乎是不相干的。師徒關係不是崇拜上師,而是提供一個機會,使我們得以從自己對實相的迷妄感知中解脫。


Looking at it from the teacher's point of view, if someone assumes the role of a teacher without being qualified, the negativity of this deception obviously will remain within their mindstream. It is important to understand that unless a lama is completely enlightened, he or she must carry the burden of what they do. Obviously, if he is an enlightened being, he has no karma, but if not, the consequences of his actions will come to him; his actions are his responsibility. From our point of view as students, if we have chosen him as our teacher, we should just learn from him, according to whatever path we wish to follow.

從上師的觀點來看,若有人不具資格卻擔負上師的角色,這個欺瞞的負面作用無疑會留存在他們自己的心續中。重要的是要理解到,除非一位喇嘛已經獲得完全開悟,否則他或她一定會負載著他自己所作所爲的包袱。顯然的,若他是開悟者,他就沒有業;若他不是,則他行爲的後果會回到他自身,他的行爲就是他自己的責任。從我們作為學生的觀點來看,若我們已經選擇他做爲自己的上師,我們就應依循我們想要追隨的那一條道途而向他學習。


The principle of guru and devotion is much more complicated than creating a role model and worshipping him or her. Devotion, when you really analyze it, is nothing more than trusting the logic of cause and effect. If you cook an egg, putting it in boiling water, you trust the egg will be boiled. That trust is devotion. It is not blind faith or insistence on the illogical. The Buddha said, "Do not rely on the individual, rely on the teaching." Yet it seems that we nonetheless decide to continue judging individual teachers without remembering the wider perspective and context of the purpose of the teachings.

有關上師和虔敬心的道理,遠比創造一個典範接著向其膜拜來得更爲複雜。虔敬心,當你真正分析時,不過就是確信因果邏輯。如果你煮個蛋,把它放在滾水堙A你確信蛋會被煮熟。那個確信就是虔敬心,不是盲信或對不合邏輯的堅持。佛陀説:「依法不依人」,然而看來我們卻像是決定繼續對個別上師進行批判,而忘了更寬廣的觀點和教法的目的。


One issue that can be controversial, and which has attracted a great deal of attention, is that in the vajrayana pleasure such as sex is not rejected as a threat to spiritual practice, but rather is used to enhance spiritual purification. While this may sound fascinating, it is important to remember that such practice requires an immense theoretical and practical grounding, without which, when viewed from the outside, it is easily misinterpreted.

有個問題是具有爭議性的,也已吸引了極大的注意力,那就是在金剛乘中,樂受,例如性,並不被視爲對精神修持有所威脅而予以拒斥,反而是用來增强靈性淨化。雖然這聽來可能美妙至極,但重要的是要記取這樣的修持需要巨大的理論和實修基礎,否則從外表看來會很容易遭到誤解。


Vajrayana male-female symbolism is not about sex. The practice can only exist in context of a correct view of the unity of compassion and wisdom. Furthermore, as the tantric path works on a personal and non-conceptual level, it is not possible to make judgments about a practitioner. Tantra transcends completely the conventional idea of a man and women having a sexual relationship. It is about working with phenomena to bring about the extraordinary realization of emptiness and bodhicitta in order to liberate all beings from samsara. To expect a yogin or yogini, who is aspiring to go beyond the chauvinism of the confused mind, to worry about sexual rights issues seems absurd in the context of such a vast view.

金剛乘的男女符號象徵與性無關。修行只存於悲智雙運的正見之下。此外,由於密續道修的是個人的、非概念性的層面,我們無法對一位修行人給予評斷。密續完全超越了一男一女有性關係的傳統想法,修的是藉由現象而引發對空性和菩提心的超凡了悟,爲的是自輪迴中解脫一切眾生。要期望一位立志超越妄念沙文主義(譯注:妄念最大)的瑜伽士或瑜伽女去擔憂性權利問題,在這樣一個廣大見地中看來是荒謬的。

Yet for the neophyte Westerner, certain Tibetan traditions must be very annoying, and seem sexist or male chauvinist. Western perspectives on sexual relationships emphasize "equality," yet this is very different from what is meant by equality in vajrayana Buddhism. Where equality in the West stands for two aspects reaching equal footing, in vajrayana Buddhism equality is going beyond "twoness" or duality all together.

然而對於初來乍到的西方人而言,某些西藏傳統必定非常惱人,而且看似性別歧視或是男性沙文主義。西方對於性關係的觀點強調的是「平等」,然而這和金剛乘佛教中平等的意義非常不同。在西方,平等指的是兩方達至一個相等的立足點;而在金剛乘佛教中,平等是去超越「有兩個」,或是超越所有的二元性。


If duality remains, then by definition there can be no equality. I think social equality between men and women is less important than realizing the equality between samsara and nirvana which, after all, is the only true way to engender a genuine understanding of equality. Thus the understanding of equality in vajrayana Buddhism is on a very profound level.

若是二元性存在,那麼就定義而言便不可能有平等。我認為男女間的社會平等沒有像了悟輪迴和涅槃的平等那樣重要,畢竟,要產生對於平等的真正理解,了悟輪涅平等是唯一真正的方法。因此,金剛乘佛教對於平等的理解是在一個非常深奧的層次上。


The notion of sexual equality is quite new in the West, and because of this there is a certain rigid and fanatic adherence to the specific way it should be practiced. In vajrayana Buddhism, on the other hand, there is a tremendous appreciation of the female, as well as a strong emphasis on the equality of all beings. This might not, however, be apparent to someone who cannot see beyond a contemporary Western framework. As a result, when Western women have sexual relationships with Tibetan lamas, some might be frustrated when their culturally conditioned expectations are not met.

性權平等的想法在西方是相當新的,因此對於應當如何施行的特定方式有著某種頑固和狂熱的堅持。另一方面,金剛乘佛教對女性有著極高的評價,以及對於一切眾生平等的深切強調。然而,對於無法脫離當代西方模式的觀察者而言,這可能不是那麼明顯,結果就是當西方女性與西藏喇嘛有性關係時,有些人可能會因自己所受文化制約而生的期望未能達到以致感到挫敗。

If anyone thinks they could have a pleasing and equal lover in a Rinpoche, they couldn't be more incorrect. Certain Rinpoches, those known as great teachers, would by definition be the ultimate bad partner, from ego's point of view. If one approaches such great masters with the intention of being gratified and wishing for a relationship of sharing, mutual enjoyment etc., then not only from ego's point of view, but even from a mundane point of view, such people would be a bad choice. They probably will not bring you flowers or invite you out for candlelit dinners.

假若有人認爲他們能從一位仁波切身上得到一個讓人愉悅且平等的愛人,這些人可就大錯特錯了。就自我的觀點而言,有些仁波切——那些著名的偉大上師,自然也是糟到極點的伴侶。若有人接近這樣的偉大上師,卻意圖要獲得獎勵,希求一個共享、共樂等等的關係,那麼不只從自我的觀點、甚至從世俗的觀點來看,這些人真的是很差的選擇。他們很可能不會送花或是請你出去吃燭光晚餐。

Anyway, if someone goes to study under a master with the intention to achieve enlightenment, one must presume that such a student is ready to give up his or her ego. You don't go to India and study with a venerable Tibetan master expecting him to behave according to your own standards. It is unfair to ask someone to free you from delusion, and then criticize him or her for going against your ego. I am not writing this out of fear that if one doesn't defend Tibetan lamas or Buddhist teachers, they will lose popularity. Despite a lot of effort to convince the world about the pitfalls of the dharma and the defects of the teachers, there will still be a lot of masochists who have the misfortune to appreciate the dharma and a crazy abusing teacher who will make sure to mistreat every inch of ego. These poor souls will eventually end up bereft of both ego and confusion.

總之,若有人從學於一位大師,為的是要獲致證悟,我們就必須認定這樣的一名弟子已經準備好要放棄自我。你不是跑去印度向一位尊貴的西藏喇嘛學習,卻還期望他的行為舉止符合你自己的標準。請求某人將你從妄念中解脫,然後又批評對方和你的自我有所牴觸,這是不公平的。我寫此文並非害怕若無人爲西藏喇嘛或佛教上師辯護,他們就會失去眾望。儘管有很多嘗試要遊說這個世界知道佛法的陷阱和上師的缺點,仍然會有許多自虐者,他們不幸的會賞識佛法以及感激瘋狂虐待的上師,這些上師會確保弟子的每一吋自我都受到不當的對待,而這些可憐的靈魂們最終會失去自我和迷妄。

I know there are plenty of people who will disagree with much of what I have said. For as much as I am set on my interpretations, so are others set on theirs. I have met great teachers whom I admire enormously and although I may be a doomed sycophant, I pray I will continue to enjoy the company of these teachers. On the other hand, people may have other ideas and be happy with them. My practice is devotion to the Buddhist path; others may chose doubting the Buddhist path. But as Dharmakirti said, ultimately we must abandon the path. So I hope in the end we will meet where we have nothing to fight over.

我知道有很多人會反對我所說的許多話,因爲我有多麼固着於自己的解讀,別人也一樣是固著於他們自己的解讀。我曾見過讓我極度崇敬的偉大上師們,雖然我可能是個天生注定的諂媚者,但我仍祈禱自己能繼續享有這些上師為伴。另一方面,人們可以有其他的想法,並且對那些想法感到快樂。我修的是對佛教之道的虔敬;其他人可能選擇去懷疑佛道,但如同法稱大師所說,最終我們必須捨棄道途,所以我希望最終我們會在無可爭執之處相會。

Mind's ultimate nature, emptiness endowed with vividness,
I was told is the real Buddha.
Recognizing this should help me
Not to be stuck with thoughts of hierarchy.

心的究竟自性,具明性的空性,

據說是真正的佛陀。

認清此當有助於我

不受困於階級體制的念頭。

Mind's ultimate nature, its emptiness aspect,
I was told is the real Dharma.
Recognizing this should help me
Not to be stuck with thoughts of political correctness.

心的究竟自性,彼之空性面向,

據說是真正的佛法。

認清此當有助於我

不受困於政治正確的念頭。

Mind's ultimate nature, its vivid aspect,
I was told is the real Sangha.
Recognizing this should help me
Not to be stuck with thoughts of equal rights.

心的究竟自性,彼之明性面向,

據說是真正的僧伽。

認清此當有助於我

不受困於平等權益的念頭。

One cannot disassociate emptiness from vividness.
This inseparability I was told is the Guru.
Recognizing this should help me
Not to be stuck with depending on chauvinist lamas.
無人能使空性與明性相分離,

據說此無二即上師。

認清此當有助於我

不致總要依靠沙文主義的喇嘛。

This nature of mind has never been stained by duality,
This stainlessness I was told is the deity.
Recognizing this should help me
Not to be stuck with the categories of "gender" or "culture."
此心性從未受二元分別所染,

據說此無染即本尊。

認清此當有助於我

不受困於性別、文化諸範疇。

This nature of mind is spontaneously present.
That spontaneity I was told is the dakini aspect.
Recognizing this should help me
Not to be stuck with fear of being sued.
—Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche

此心性任運自現,

據說此自生即空行面向。

認清此當有助於我

不致總是擔心遭人訴訟。

~~宗薩欽哲仁波切


Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche is a student of Khenpo Appey Rinpoche and is responsible for the education of approximately 1,600 monks distributed between six monasteries and institutes in Asia . He is the founder of several dharma centers in the west and three nonprofit organizations: Siddhartha's Intent, Khyentse Foundation and Lotus Outreach. He is the director of the films The Cup and Travellers & Magicians.

宗薩蔣揚欽哲仁波切是堪布阿貝仁波切的弟子,負責亞洲六所寺廟與機構約1600名僧眾的教育。仁波切是西方數個佛法中心及三個非盈利組織的創立者,包括悉達多本願佛學會、欽哲基金會、蓮心基金會。他也是電影「高山上的世界杯」和「旅行者與魔法師」的導演。
 

[此帖子已經被作者於2010/9/10 下午 03:47:39編輯過]
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