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來自世界上唯一梵咒傳承的教派網站-尼瓦佛教梵咒陀羅尼再度開放

http://www.dharanisangraha.com/

經過了為期多時的工程,專門研究全世界唯一印度佛教密教教派,尼泊爾尼瓦佛教的梵咒網站再度開放,歡迎大家前去參觀。這是專門從事尼泊爾尼瓦佛教研究的釋迦教授,也是尼瓦佛教的僧伽(他是在家人)成員之一,所從事的研究工作。釋迦教授先前建構了梵文電子佛典的網站(西來大學所支持),在學術界上有很高的評價。該站的名稱為Dharanisangraha,暫且譯為"陀羅尼藏"。釋迦教授說明,這個站將秉承建構梵文電子藏經的精神,致力投入將可公開的屬於佛教梵文陀羅尼的文獻電子化工作(屬於無上瑜珈的部分恕不公開)。該站並揭示了部分該教派的陀羅尼的梵本原典,供大家參觀。

釋迦教授屬於釋迦牟尼佛宗族後代,釋迦族,該族目前主要分布在尼泊爾首都,加德滿都附近山谷,帕丹,拉利普如等地,在印度佛教毀於回教徒的歷史上,唯一倖存於世的,保存著印度大乘佛教傳統,仍有僧團與修行者,也有金剛上師。在佛教宏傳史上有相當的影響力,影響及中國佛教與藏傳佛教。

特別是大家可以閱讀那篇由Ringu Tulku仁波切所撰寫的陀羅尼導論(Introduction to Dharanis)對於佛教的陀羅尼有較為正確的認識。

http://www.dharanisangraha.com/introduction.html

Introduction to Dharanis

By Ringu Tulku

INTRODUCTION

There are four ornaments that glorify a Bodhisattva: sila, dhyana, prajna and dharani

(sung kyi wang chuk gyalpo shu pa)

Of the above four ornaments, the first three are quite well known among Buddhist students all over the world and considerable literature is available on them. It seems to me, however, that the last ornament, dharani, has not been given proper attention, and should not be considered any less important than the first three. So an attempt is made here to throw light on this subject.
Dharani is not unknown in Theravadin literature, as can be seen from the story of Ananda and other sources. Here, explanation of Dharani only from the Tibetan perspective is given.
 

Since not much information is available on Dharani, it is generally understood to be just a kind of mantra. However, according to various sturas and other texts of Mahayana Buddhism, it is not only that, but also an essential method of attaining perfect enlightenment. The main importance of this ornament lies in the realization of the true nature of verbal concepts, which are the foundation of all dualistic thought. Its other results, like the ability to understand and retain the teachings, are also important in accomplishing the attainment of prajna paramita.

The Mahayana Dharani

The word dharani in Sanskrit means to hold; to preserve,?which denotes an ability to retain the teachings. Mahayana texts generally describe it as a combination of a clear memory and deep understanding. As Asanga explains in the Mahayanasutralankara:

The nature of dharani is memory and understanding. A special kind of memory and understanding is called dharani.

The achievement of the lowest kind of dharani brings an ability to retain discourses or texts of any length by merely hearing or reading them once. This is why dharani is generally explained as a clear memory, though it is not only that.
 

Different Mahayana texts divide dharani into various parts: phal po che jig ten lay day pay leu lists ten; shung kyi wang chuk gyalpo shu pai do mentions eight; thub pa gong gyan mentions one dharani to each bhumi; and Asanga has accomodated all under four headings.
 

Asangas explanation has become the most widely accepted among Tibetan commentators. According to him, the four dharanis are:

1. Dharma Dharani (cho sung)
2. Artha Dharani (don sung)
3. Mantra Dharani (ngag sung)
4. Ksama Dharani (sho sung)

1. Dharma Dharani (cho sung)

Ten different meanings are attributed to the word dharma in the nam shay rig pa. Here its meaning is teachings?or texts? Therefore, Dharma dharani may literally be translated as retaining of texts or teachings.?One who has attained this dharani is said to be able to retain spoken or written teachings of any length just by hearing or seeing them once. It is clearly explained in the Jyang sa (Bodhisattva Bhumi):


If you ask what Dharma dharani means, it is a power of memory and understanding that a Bodhisattva acquires, which permits the retention of an unlimited number of words, phrases and syllables with which one was not previously familiar, in verse or prose, for an unlimited period of time, after only one hearing, and without a single repetition.

2. Artha Dharani (don sung)

This is an acquired power of mind through which one is able to understand and retain the meanings of teachings that are received from the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. The teachings are retained in the same manner as with the Dharma dharani. The difference is that one can perceive the substantial meaning of the teaching or the text in totality. We can cite examples of this dharani from the sutras, which describe how certain Bodhisattvas or Bhiksus attained a Dhyana merely by hearing the Buddha speak of it.

Here the commentary of ?i>bum?or Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra or the sutra of the perfection of wisdom in 100000 lines to clarify this:

Artha dharani is a power of memory and understanding by which meaning of teachings that have been given - e.g., bhumi, paramita, bodhipaksiya, bala or vaisradya - can be realized and their results attained.

3. Mantra Dharani (ngag sung)

Mantra dharani is said to be a power of mind which enables one to convert any syllable or syllable into a mantra. If a Bodhisattva who has attained the mantra dharani empowers a syllable in order to eradicate certain infectious diseases, the syllable will have the desired effect. This power is also said to be attained through the combined forces of smrti and prajna, though indirectly. This is clearly stated in gya thong drel pa da ?/i>:

With the combined force of smrti and prajna, one attains the power to utter magic-like mantras enabling one to benefit sentient beings. This is called mantra dharani.

Though there are different stages of power, one who has attains this dharani can form a mantra for any purpose and the effect of that mantra will remain for the required length of time. This power sometimes is acquired by remembering the mantras said by Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, but generally it is a direct result of meditation.
 

Mantras formulated in order to attain dharani, and those which are formulated by one who has attained the dharani, are both classified as mantra dharani.

4. Ksama Dharani (sh?sung)

As mentioned earlier, this is most difficult dharani to achieve and it is also the most important one. This dharani is achieved by concentrating on a single syllable Ah. When the dharani is achieved it is said that one may recall all that one has ever heard or seen which began with the syllable Ah. This dharani is achieved chiefly through the realization of the true nature of verbal concepts, or the real nature of sunyata. Here is how it is achieved according to the yum sum n?jom:

We imagine that Ah denotes the unborn or never-born, i.e. sunyata. We imagine that Ah is the meaning of never-born. We contemplate and we meditate on the meaning of the Ah. With the force of such habitual contemplation and meditation we see, with the help of Ah, the Sunyata nature in everything. We see everything as never born. Therefore, Ah is the cause of the realization of all Dharma.

The above dharanis are said to be achieved in three ways. The Mahayanasutralankara (do de gyan) presents these as follows: through the merits earned in previous lives; through vigorous studies in this life; through meditation.


The first is a karmic result. No conscious efforts are needed here. The dharani develops naturally owing to the karma of previous lives. Only the first three dharanis can be achieved in this way and they will not be permanent.

LENGTH OF DHARANIS

Mantra was first conceptualized by Buddhist translators and intellectuals as a type of dharani. With regard to length, the seed-syllables (bija or hrdya-mantra), one syllable mantras, always appear to have been considered mantras only. That spells 20 syllables or less are mantras while those longer are dharani. Many of the important sutras of the time such as the Lotus, Suramgama, and so forth, conclude with or include sections of dharani.

With the combined force of smrti and prajna, one attains the power to utter magic-like mantras enabling one to benefit sentient beings. This is called mantra dharani.

Though there are different stages of power, one who has attains this dharani can form a mantra for any purpose and the effect of that mantra will remain for the required length of time. This power sometimes is acquired by remembering the mantras said by Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, but generally it is a direct result of meditation.
 

Mantras formulated in order to attain dharani, and those which are formulated by one who has attained the dharani, are both classified as mantra dharani.

4. Ksama Dharani (sh?sung)

As mentioned earlier, this is most difficult dharani to achieve and it is also the most important one. This dharani is achieved by concentrating on a single syllable Ah. When the dharani is achieved it is said that one may recall all that one has ever heard or seen which began with the syllable Ah. This dharani is achieved chiefly through the realization of the true nature of verbal concepts, or the real nature of sunyata. Here is how it is achieved according to the yum sum n?jom:

We imagine that Ah denotes the unborn or never-born, i.e. sunyata. We imagine that Ah is the meaning of never-born. We contemplate and we meditate on the meaning of the Ah. With the force of such habitual contemplation and meditation we see, with the help of Ah, the Sunyata nature in everything. We see everything as never born. Therefore, Ah is the cause of the realization of all Dharma.

The above dharanis are said to be achieved in three ways. The Mahayanasutralankara (do de gyan) presents these as follows: through the merits earned in previous lives; through vigorous studies in this life; through meditation.


The first is a karmic result. No conscious efforts are needed here. The dharani develops naturally owing to the karma of previous lives. Only the first three dharanis can be achieved in this way and they will not be permanent.

LENGTH OF DHARANIS

Mantra was first conceptualized by Buddhist translators and intellectuals as a type of dharani. With regard to length, the seed-syllables (bija or hrdya-mantra), one syllable mantras, always appear to have been considered mantras only. That spells 20 syllables or less are mantras while those longer are dharani. Many of the important sutras of the time such as the Lotus, Suramgama, and so forth, conclude with or include sections of dharani.

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